Innovative technologies to combat large-scale fires - as a factor in increasing the safety and survivability of fuel and energy facilities
Kuprin, the General Director of the NGO "Sopot", Ph.D., Vice President WASCS.
Shelf development, exploration and development of oil and gas fields is a matter of production activity increased danger.
A distinctive feature of accidents and disasters at sea and onshore is the extremely short duration of the development process associated with the release of hydrocarbons and their combustion in the dense placement process equipment.
The world history of continental shelf is known a number of accidents and disasters arising in consequence of errors in the design, and adoption of underperforming concepts and emergency equipment, and fire-proof protection.
For example, due to a small accident on the oil platform Deepwater Horison, the company British Petroleum, Gulf of Mexico oil leak, followed by a large fire, fire which lasted for several days. Despite the suppression of fire, accident could not be prevented. Damage in the explosion, fire and oil spill was several tens of billions of dollars.
Also, because of the timing of intervention and not an efficient process extinguishing platform Rhone Tappmeyer 02.10.80 (Red Sea) during drilling occurred uncontrolled release of oil from the explosion and subsequent fire. 19 people died.
In the North Sea platform 27.03.83 Kieland Alexander, a series of explosions followed by fire. 123 people have died due to inefficient fire extinguishers. The platform has been completely destroyed.
Even more catastrophic event occurred 07.06.88, at deck platform Piper Alfa, as a result of a series of alternating explosions caused a fire that destroyed the platform. When fire killed 164 people.
Over the past 30 years, just offshore was more than 60 incidents resulting in the deaths of over 600 people and many suffered severe burns and injuries.
Moreover, almost every incident of explosion or fire, ends up with a platform destroyed or becomes unusable for recovery.
Fire Statistics on vessels, especially on ships transporting hydrocarbon fuels, is no less tragic.
For example, in March 2005, the Greek tanker MV Polaris, who was standing in the main Ghanaian port of Tema, there was a big fire. According to preliminary data, 18 people were killed, including the entire crew. The fire developed very quickly. The tanker was completely destroyed by fire, and the people on board, there was no chance of escape.
Serious damage was caused to port installations, including providing work the country's only oil refinery, which was shut down, as well as the terminal aluminum company. Fire put out more than 80 people - fire power port and the military. They are mostly engaged in the localization of the fire, waiting for the oil will burn.
In March 2010goda on type oil tanker VLCC Hercules (Malaysia), due to an explosion in the oil tank on fire. Many of the crew members and contract workers on board at the time of fire, received severe burns.
In October 2010, the st.Bogaevskaya, Rostov Oblast, Russia, during the transfer of oily liquid from the vessel "SVM-7" on board "OS-5" caught fire with the subsequent passage of the electric fire on another ship. The fire killed a sailor, crew members received severe burns.
October 17, 2009 in the port of the Turkish resort of Antalya, detonated tank with bitumen, and then began a strong fire. 5 people were killed, 4 people were seriously injured.
Analysis of the statistics shows that fires and explosions occur also in ship collision.
For example, in February 2009, the oil tanker "Kashmir" container ship collided with seven miles from Dubai's Jebel Ali port. The collision was a fire on the two ships, which were difficult to put out.
In July 2010, the bulk carrier Yeoman Bontrup, during loading operations there was a fire, due to which the ship exploded gas cylinders. The fire was put out in just 2 days.
The most important factor in locating and extinguishing fires on ships and offshore platforms and other objects of the sea and shore-based prevention is the process of flaming in any form.
The physical nature of this condition is to ensure that the actual process of fighting a fire, you need to create the conditions that would prevent the continuation of burning in any form.
That is what makes it necessary to provide instant response to the process of a fire of any size.
Thus, from the beginning of development of the shelf of the northern and southern seas, as Arctic and Antarctic very relevant question became effective means extinguishing hydrocarbon fuel on ships and platforms for the production of hydrocarbons, as well as objects of sea-and land-based.
Until recently, the fire extinguishing oil and oil spilled on water, land or are in tanks, containers, vehicles, provides a powerful displays great performance and range.
The effectiveness of these tools appears mainly through the use of blowing agents based on fluorine-containing components such as AFFF («light water").
At the same time, in recent years, due to the detection of environmental hazards of fluorinated blowing agents, production and use of which was banned a few years ago, the Committee on the Environment of the United Nations, a new problem arose alternative replacement of previously developed fire monitors (monitors) is adapted to the fluorinated blowing agent.
Simple replacement of fluorinated blowing agents for hydrocarbons, synthetic and other types of foam, is a process not effective and does not result equal application of foam type AFFF.
Search for an alternative to "light water" and a foam devices based on it in 80-90gg. occupied by Russian scientists and specialists, including JSC NPO "Sopot".
In the process of research and R & D, has been found a new way (technology) pulsed fire based on the pulse generation foams different dispersion and multiplicity, implemented by means of means of transportation and supply of fire extinguishing foams.
These technical means have the trademark "Blizzard."
They are different from the existing world counterparts ability to simultaneously extinguishing foams different dispersion and multiplicity.
In the process of applying for the exchange jet kinetic energy of high-density foam jets jets foams with low density obtained using pulse generation for grid generator and mixing in the wake.
This technology was developed specifically for emerging post-emergency fire fighting aircraft on the ground, where the high rate of fire is a vital process, as flights structurally made of materials with low fire resistance, in the process of combustion of aviation materials provides high heat accelerates the process of burning, destruction designs, which increases the probability of death of people, leading to catastrophic consequences of an accident.
Experience fire-fighting aircraft fuels with plants "Blizzard" showed the possibility of the elimination of burning on any area of air-mechanical foams based on conventional organic foams produced in Russia, during the 30-60 sec., That is the period when there is still a large likely save the lives of passengers and crew, equipment and property, and also the aircraft.
This method and apparatus for its implementation, namely the installation "Blizzard", has recently been tested in the world's largest for the last 10-20 years of fire field testing in Atyrau, Kazakhstan (June 2010.).
During these tests was simulated fire spilled diesel fuel on an area of 2000 m2. Tests were carried out on a sunny day at 400°C.
Used for fire fighting installation ICFF "Blizzard 30" and ICFF "Blizzard 10". Total capacity of plants was 80 l/s.
The flow rate of air-mechanical foam of 0.04 l • s/m2, which is 2 times lower than the standard flow rate required by rules and regulations adopted for extinguishing oil products in Russia and abroad.
Despite the small flow rate, fire was extinguished by installations "blizzard" for 1.5-2 min.
These tests proved that the technology of fire extinguishing combined method, that is, simultaneous supply of foams with different degrees, has a higher capacity than used today fire departments established fire protection.
Therefore, the development of technical means of making foams great performance and range of technology-based JSC NPO "Sopot" and at the same time providing a combined flow is not fluorinated firefighting foam has a high prospect.
One of the most explosive places oil platforms or large ships are helicopter landing pads.
Practice extinguishing fires at the facilities of aircraft, including helicopters, shows that the regulatory requirements for the design of fire protection systems helipads are understated. They are built mainly on the knowledge of the process of extinguishing flammable and combustible liquids, which do not take into account a parameter such as the dynamics of the fire disaster of the helicopter on the helipad and the quenching rate of spilled fuel, combined with the necessity of simultaneous cooling of hot metal airframe, and the intensity wind loads (wind effects) near the helipad ship or oil platform. Disregard of these parameters leads to a dramatic reduction in fire protection facility.
Because of the lack of effective fire fighting and timely responses to fire, 14 May 2001. burned down a military helicopter Ka-27 PS, Mi-8 helicopter airline "Naryan-Mar United Squad" 25 August 2004. in the Nenets Autonomous District. The lack of effective fire fighting led to a catastrophe for the landing site exploration well № 774 deposit Worgen 2 July 2008. As a result of the disaster of 9 passengers were killed and four passengers and crew members were injured and burns of varying severity.
Typically, in the design of fire protection helipads for clearing the flow rate and specific consumption of water and foam means, take the value equal to 0.09 liters • s/m2. That number was not quite enough for the process extinguishing fires at the heliport. Regulatory flow rate should be at least 1.5-2 times higher.
However, using the new technology of simultaneous submission pen low and medium expansion, we can achieve a significant increase in fire rate, even with no fluorinated blowing agents.
Such opportunity is provided through an "Blizzard".
The concept of fire protection helipad built on a semiautomatic or automatic fire extinguishing system using plants "Blizzard." In the composition of this system, we propose to use autonomous fire unit of container (APMKT) with the installation of "Blizzard", placement of which should be as close to the helipad.
The system includes:
1.Pump station with diesel or electric motors, pump capacity is determined in each case in the design. The station should have a supply of water and foam solution sufficient to provide 100% of th fire on projected area.
2.Piping system (suhotrubov) and means the alarm and turn the pump station and the foam on the site.
3.System circular pipeline of hosted installations "Blizzard" oriented so as to ensure the simultaneous creation of a layer of foam on the floor and cooling the airframe in a burning zone area.
Field tests of samples of an autonomous system firefighting helicopter pad using the above technique, demonstrated its ability to provide fire before the catastrophic factors.